<HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Anthropology of Anime & Manga: The Phoenix of Osamu Tezuka </TITLE><META name="description" content=" ."> <META name="keywords" content=" , "> </HEAD> <BODY BACKGROUND=""><BODY BGCOLOR="FFFFF"TEXT="#000000" LINK="#0000ff"> <center><font color="blue"><H2><B>Anthropology of Anime and Manga</B> </H2></font></center><P> <center><font color="red"><H2><B>Science Fiction and Horror Manga Classics</B> </H2></font></center><P> <center><font color="blue"><b>Contacting Yutaka Yamada</b></font><br> <A HREF=mailto:tamayu@aol.com>E-Mail Yutaka Yamada: tamayu@aol.com</A> <br> </center><P> <center><font color="blue"><H1><B>Osamu Tezuka's "Phoenix" (Hi no Tori)</B> </H1></font></center><P> The 12 volume manga series, "Phoenix" (kpn0), is the life work of the great anime and manga master of Japan, Osamu Tezuka (KbZXlk 1928-1989). Tezuka began writing Phoenix in the mid-1960s and worked on it until the end of his life in 1989. Tezuka, a former medical doctor, is one of the greatest anime and manga masters of post World War II Japan. His nicknames range from the "God of Manga" to "Walt Disney of Japan". He is also well known as the creator of mega hit anime and manga, "Astro Boy" (Tetsuwan Atomu DU000), "Black Jack", "Adolph" , "Kimba the White Lion" and "Buddha". <br><br> The myth / folklore of gaining immortality through drinking the blood of the phoenix is one of the core themes of the narrative. This masterpiece of visual narrative depicts the quest of immortality among many heroes and heroines of the Japanese past as well as the future. The symbolic narrative elaborates on the socio-political theme of injustice, exploitation of masses by the elite, the futility of war, the meaning of art, fate (e.g. Karma), reincarnation and consciousness. The story also touches upon biological and environmental themes such as the significance of evolution, ecology and procreation. The characters such as aliens (e.g. Moopie), androids and robots (e.g. Olga and Robita) appear to illustrate the fantasic nature of the story. <br><br> The historical period covered by the phoenix cycle includes: <A HREF="#0">Yayoi Period %_uBfN</A> ("Dawn"), <A HREF="#1">Kofun Period SXBfN</A> ("Yamato"), <A HREF="#2">Asuka Period ۘBfN</A> ("The Sun"), <A HREF="#3">Nara Period HYoBfN</A> ("Karma"), <A HREF="#4">Heian Period s^[BfN</A> ("Turbulent Times"), <A HREF="#5">Muromachi Period [:uBfN</A> ("Strange Beings") and future ("A Tale of the Future", "Space", "Resurrection", "Nostalgia", "Life" and "The Sun"). (See chart below) Phoenix is a fascinating example of Japanese anime, manga / graphic novel that utilizes mythological metaphors and symbols to express Japanese as well as "universal" cosmology, world view and ethos. <br><br> Kadokawa Shoten ҉]f^ of Japan published the complete Japanese language 12 volume phoenix series in 1986, 1987, 1992 and 2003. In September 2007, Viz Media in the United States of America has completed a translation of the twelve volumes of  Phoenix into English (see titles below). As of October 2007, 17 episodes of Phoenix have been made into anime. The anime entitled, "Phoenix 2772", (kpn0an0000000) (1980) is widely available with English subtitles. In 2004, NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation e,g>eTSO) broadcasted 12 anime episodes of Phoenix. The contents and plots of some of the NHK Phoenix Anime differ significantly from the original Manga (e.g. Resurrection). See below for the complete list of Phoenix Anime series.<br><br> <center><H2><b>Japanese Original</b></H2></center><br><br> <center>Key: jt=Japanese title, et=English title, hp=historical period, m=magazine, p=Publisher, #ISBN number</center><br><br> 1967 "Reimei" (jt) "Dawn" (et) COM (m), Mushi Pro. (p)<br> <A HREF="#0">Yayoi Period</A> (hp)<br><br> 1967-1968 "Mirai" (jt) A Tale of the Future (et) COM (m), Mushi Pro. (p)<br> 35th C AD (hp)<br><br> 1968-1969 "Yamato" (jt & et) COM (m), Mushi Pro. (p)<br> <A HREF="#1">Kofun Period</A> (hp) <br><br> 1969 "Uchu" (jt) "Space (et) COM (m), Mushi Pro. (p)<br> 26th C AD (hp)<br><br> 1969-1970 "Hoou" (jt) "Karma" (et) COM (m), Mushi Pro. (p)<br> <A HREF="#2">Nara Period</A> (hp) <br><br> 1970-1971 "Fukkatsu" (jt) "Resurrection" (et) COM (m), Mushi Pro.(p) <br> 25th C, 31st C and 34th C AD (hp)<br><br> 1971 "Hagoromo" (jt) "Robe of Feathers" (et) COM (m), Mushi Pro.(p) <br> Unspecified past (hp)<br><br> 1973 "Ransei" (jt) "Turbulent Times" (et) Vol. 1 COM (m), Mushi Pro. (p)<br> <A HREF="#3">Heian Period</A> (hp) <br><br> 1976 "Bookyo" (jt) "Nostalgia (et) Manga Shonen (m), Asahi Sonorama.(p) <br> Unspecified future<br><br> 1978-1980 "Ransei" (jt) "Turbulent Times" (et) Vol. 2 Manga Shonen (m), Asahi Sonorama. (p)<br> <A HREF="#3">Heian Period</A> (hp) <br><br> 1980 "Seimei" (jt) "Life" (et) Manga Shonen (m), Asahi Sonorama.(p)<br> Unspecified future (hp)<br><br> 1981 "Igyo" (jt) "Strange Beings (et) Manga Shonen (m), Asahi Sonorama.(p)<br> <A HREF="#5">Muromachi Period</A> (hp)<br><br> 1986-1988 "Taiyo" (jt) "The Sun" (et) Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 The Wild Age (m), Kadokawa (p)<br> <A HREF="#2">Asuka Period</A> and the 21st C AD (hp)<br><br> <center><H2><b>English Translations</b></H2></center><br><br> 2002 Phoenix: A Tale of the Future<br> Viz Media LLC. #159116026XX<br> "Mirai" (jt)<br><br> 2003 Phoenix: Dawn<br> Viz Media LLC. #1569318689<br> "Reimei" (jt)<br><br> 2003 Phoenix: Yamato / Space<br> Viz Media LLC. #1591161002<br> "Yamato" (jt) and "Uchuu" (jt)<br><br> 2004 Phoenix: Karma<br> Viz Media LLC. #1591163005<br> "Hoou" (jt)<br> <br> 2004 Phoenix: Resurrection<br> Viz Media LLC. #1591165938<br> "Fukkatsu" (jt)<br><br> 2006 Phoenix: Nostalgia (Vol.6)<br> Viz Media LLC #1421502585<br> "Bookyo" (jt)<br><br> 2006 Phoenix: Civil War Vol.1 (Vol.7)<br> Viz Media LLC #1421505177<br> "Ransei" (jt)<br><br> 2006 Phoenix: Civil War Vol.2 and Robe of Feathers (Vol.8)<br> Viz Media LLC #1421505185<br> "Ransei" and "Hagoromo" (jt)<br><br> 2006 Phoenix: Strange Beings / Life (Vol.9)<br> Viz Media LLC #1421505193<br> "Igyo" (jt) / "Seimei" (jt)<br><br> 2007 Phoenix: Sun Part 1 (Vol.10)<br> Viz Media LLC #1421509725<br> "Taiyo" (jt)<br><br> 2007 Phoenix: Sun Part 2 (Vol.11)<br> Viz Media LLC #1421509730<br> "Taiyo" (jt)<br><br> <center><H2><b>Phoenix Anime Series</b></H2></center><br><br> 1978 "Reimei", Toho<br><br> 1980 "Phoenix 2772" (Ai no Cosmo Zone), Tezuka Production, Toho<br><br> 1986 "Hoou", Tezuka Production, Kadokawa, Tohoku Shinsha<br><br> 1987 "Uchuu", Toho, Kadokawa, Tohoku Shinsha<br><br> 1987 "Yamato", Tezuka Production, Toho, Kadokawa, Tohoku Shinsha<br><br> 2004 (April to June)<br> "Dawn" -- 4 episodes, NHK TV<br> "Resurrection" --1 episode, NHK TV<br> "Strange Being"--1 episode, NHK TV<br> "The Sun"---4 episodes, NHK TV<br> "The Tale of the Future" -- 2 episodes, NHK TV<br><br> <center><H2><b>Phoenix Links</b></H2></center><br><br> <b>English Phoenix Links</b><br><br> <A HREF="http://www.awn.com/mag/issue3.5/3.5pages/3.5leger.html">Tezuka profile.</A><br>http://www.awn.com/mag/issue3.5/3.5pages/3.5leger.html <P> <A HREF="http://www.japan-zone.com/modern/tezuka_osamu.shtml">Tezuka biography.</A><br>http://www.japan-zone.com/modern/tezuka_osamu.shtml <P> <A HREF="http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0856804/bio">IMDB.COM's Tezuka biography. (Good database for anime and films.)</A><br>http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0856804/bio <P> <A HREF=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_%28manga%29">Tezuka's wikipedia link</A><br> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_%28manga%29<br> <P> <A HREF="http://tezukainenglish.com/bm/series/phoenix/phoenix-manga/index.shtml ">Introductions to Tezuka's works in English. </A><br> http://tezukainenglish.com/bm/series/phoenix/phoenix-manga/index.shtml <br> <P> <b>Japanese Phoenix Links (In Japanese)</b><br><br> <A HREF="http://www3.nhk.or.jp/anime/hinotori/">NHK (Japan Public Broadcasting) Phoenix anime of 2004 webpage.</A><br>http://www3.nhk.or.jp/anime/hinotori/ <P> <A HREF="http://www.kadokawa.co.jp/sp/200403-07/">Kadokawa publishing company's webpage.</A><br>http://www.kadokawa.co.jp/sp/200403-07/ <P> <A HREF="http://www.phoenix.to/54/54-18.html">Detailed chronology of Tezuka's works.</A><br>http://www.phoenix.to/54/54-18.html <P> <A HREF="http://www.city.takarazuka.hyogo.jp/tezuka/index.htm">Osamu Tezuka Manga Museum in Hyogo prefecture.</A><br>http://www.city.takarazuka.hyogo.jp/tezuka/index.htm <P> <A HREF="http://homepage3.nifty.com/KN6/sub1.htm">Summary of Phoenix plots.</A><br>http://homepage3.nifty.com/KN6/sub1.htm <P> <A HREF=" http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~takeboh/hinotori/">Summary of Phoenix plots.</A><br> http://www.bekkoame.ne.jp/~takeboh/hinotori/ <P> <center><H2><b>KbZX lkHQu +o;u 0kpn0 00000Te</b></H2></center><br><br> <center>Key: jt=e,g0000, et=񂞊0000, hp=BfN, m=і T, p=QHr>y, #=ISBN juS</center><br><br> 1967 -fT42t^ 0Ξf} 0 (jt), "Dawn" (et), COM (m), k00FUN (p)<br> <A HREF="#0">%_uBfN</A> (hp)<br><br> 1967-1968 -fT42-43t^ 0*geg} 0 (jt), "A Tale of the Future" (et), COM (m), k00FUN (p)<br> 35N} (hp)<br><br> 1968-1969 -fT43-44t^ 0'YT} 0 (jt), "Yamato" (et), COM (m), k00FUN (p)<br> <A HREF="#1">SXBfN</A> (hp) <br><br> 1969 0[[} 0 -fT44t^ (jt), "Space (et), COM (m), k00FUN (p)<br> 26N}(hp)<br><br> 1969-1970 -fT44-45t^ 0Q} 0 (jt), "Karma" (et), COM (m), k00FUN (p)<br> <A HREF="#2">HYoBfN</A> (hp) <br><br> 1970-1971 -fT45-46t^ 0_;m} 0 (jt), "Resurrection" (et), COM (m), k00FUN(p) <br> 25N}031N}h034N}(hp)<br><br> 1971 -fT45t^ 0c} 0 (jt), "Robe of Feathers" (et), COM (m), k00FUN(p) <br> *g[n0NS (hp)<br><br> 1973 -fT48t^ 0qNN} 0 (jt), "Turbulent Times" (et), Vol. 1 COM (m), k00FUN(p)<br> <A HREF="#3">s^[BfN</A> (hp) <br><br> 1976 -fT51t^ 0g} 0 (jt), "Nostalgia (et), 000\t^ (m), ge0000(p) <br> Nx[*geg<br><br> 1978-1980 -fT53-55t^ 0qNN} 0 (jt), "Turbulent Times" (et), Vol. 2 000\t^ (m), ge0000 (p)<br> <A HREF="#3">s^[BfN</A> (hp) <br><br> 1980 -fT55t^ 0u}T} 0 (jt), "Life" (et), 000\t^ (m), ge0000(p)<br> Nx[*geg (hp)<br><br> 1981 -fT56t^ 0pub_} 0 (jt), "Strange Beings (et), 000\t^ (m), ge0000(p)<br> <A HREF="#5">[:uBfN</A> (hp)<br><br> 1986-1988 -fT61-63t^ 0*Y}} 0 (jt), "The Sun" (et), Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 ΑuBfN (m), ҉]f^ (p)<br> <A HREF="#2">ۘBfN</A>h021N}(hp)<br><br> <center><H2><b>Notes</b></H2></center><br><br> <A NAME="0">(N1) Yayoi Period: approximately 300 BC to 250 AD.<br><br> <A NAME="1">(N1) Kofun Period: about 3rd C AD to 6th C AD.<br><br> <A NAME="2">(N2) Asuka Period (The Age of Reform): 552 AD to 710 AD.<br><br> <A NAME="3">(N3) Nara Period: 710 AD to 794 AD.<br><br> <A NAME="4">(N4) Heian Period: 794 AD to 1185 AD.<br><br> <A NAME="5">(N5) Muromachi Period: about 1336 AD to 1573 AD.<br><br> <center><A HREF=mailto:tamayu@aol.com>E-Mail Yutaka Yamada: tamayu@aol.com</A><br> </center><p> <center>For information on Anthropology Click Below</center><P> <CENTER><table border="5" cellpadding="0"><TD><b>Anthja Index</b><TD><A HREF="CA3.html"> Anthropology</A><TD><A HREF="exersymb3.html"> Symbolic Anthropology</A></TD><TR></Table></CENTER><P> <CENTER><table border="5" cellpadding="0"><TD> <b>Yutaka Site Index</b><TD><A HREF="yyd3.html">Background </A><TD><A HREF="exerd3.html"> Publication Excerpts</A><TD><A HREF="http://anthja.com/ab.html"> Bruckner</A></TD><TR></Table></CENTER><P> <center>Thank you for Visiting Our Site!!</center> <center><b>Updated 01/21/2012</b></center> </Body></HTML>